From bustling lanes in new Delhi and Mumbai to salient silences in Uttarakhand and Himachal, India is home to different cultures and stories with complimenting history. But other than the beauty of diversity and architecture, this country also contributes to some of the most beautiful and tallest mountain ranges in the world.
Below is the list of mountain ranges in India:
Homing different religions and cultures, Himalayas are spread across 5 countries, consisting of Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, and inhabits 52.7 million people. It separates Indian subcontinent plains from Tibetan plateau and controls the climate at the boundaries, keeping monsoon in Indian plains and limiting it in Tibet.
Major rivers in the world- Indus, Ganga, and Tsangpo rise in the Himalayas. It encompasses 15000 glaciers, including Gangotri, Yamunotri, Khumbu, Langtang and zemu in different parts of the ranges. The Himalayas also homes a sacred space for Hindus, Buddhist, Islamic and animists.
These divine mountains consist of three parallel ranges-Himadri (The greater Himalayas), Himachal(The lesser Himalayas) and Shivalik(outer Himalayas).
With its glaciers being the source of Ganga and Yamuna, Himadri or The Great Himalayas are 1400miles in length and elevation of 6,100metres. These are located in the northernmost section of the Himalayan ranges. Covered in perpetual snow, The Great Himalayas inhabits few passes including Burzil Pass and Zoli La in Jammu And Kashmir, BaraLacha La and Shipki-La in Himachal Pradesh, Thaga La, Niti Pass and Lipu Lekh in Uttarakhand. This range also has the highest mountain peaks in the world, including Mount Everest, Mount Godwin, and Kanchenjunga,
Running parallel to Shivalik Ranges in South, and Himadri Ranges in North, Lesser Himalayas or Himachal is situated in between both the Himalayan Ranges. These ranges are snow-covered in mountains throughout the year and are the most human-friendly places attracting tourists from all around the world. Important ranges include Pir panjal in Jammu and Kashmir, Nag Tibba and Mussoorie in Uttarakhand, Dhaola Dhar in Himachal Pradesh and Mahabharat Leh in Nepal. Shimla. Mussoorie, Ranikhet, and many more tourist-friendly places are in Himachal ranges.
Being the youngest of all the ranges, Outer Himalayas or Shivaliks ranges were formed 2-20 million years ago. Its width varies from 50km in Himachal to 15km in Arunachal. The forest covers from North-East India become thin towards the west of Nepal whereas the southern slopes in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh are devoid of covers. Shivalik are known as the Jammu hills in Jammu and Kashmir, Dafla, Miri, Abor, and Mishmi Hills in Arunachal, Dhang Range, Dhunda Range in Uttarakhand and Churia Ghat hills in Nepal.
Located in the north of the Great Himalayas, Trans-Himalayan ranges or Gangdise –NyenchenTanglha Range is extended 1500miles along the border of India and Tibet with 7200metres high mountains. The collision with Eurasian plates in the region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh gives birth to these ranges. These ranges are permanently snow-covered and are primary tourist attractions.
The primary himalayan ranges in Trans-Himalayan ranges are PirPanjal Range, Dhauladhar Range, Zanskar Range, Ladakh Range and East Karakoram Range.
Being the largest range of lesser Himalayas, Pirpanjal offers a great landscape view. This range is also known as Panchala-deva in Hindu scriptures. Pirpanjal Range runs across the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir and the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir. Gulmarg of Kashmir and Galyat mountains are also located in this range.
Dhauladhar Range rises from the Indian Plains towards Kangra and Mandi. There are several peaks close to 5,180 m with the highest peak being Hanuman Tibba with an elevation of 5982m. The ideal time to visit this range is from March to July.
Standing at the height of 6000m, this range separates Zanskar from Ladakh. Flooded with the Tibetan population, this part of Himalayas attracts tourists for trekking, paragliding, and river rafting. The ideal time to visit this region is from April to September.
This range lies between the Indus and Shyok river valleys. Ladakh’s range is regarded as the south extension of the Karakoram Range. The main mountain passes are Chorbat, Digar La, Khardung La, Chang La, and Tsaka La with no major peaks. This range is accessible between April and September.
East Karakoram Range
This range consists of a group of parallel ranges with several spurs. Found there is the greatest concentration of high mountains in the world and the longest glaciers outside the high latitudes. It consists of the greatest ranges of Asia, spanning the border of India- Pakistan, and China.
3.Eastern Mountain Range
Also known as The Purvanchal Range, Eastern Mountain Range runs through the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram. It includes the hill ranges of the Patkai, Barail range, Mizoram Mizo, and Naga Hills. Meghalaya, the wettest place on Earth lies in this part.
4.The Satpura Range
The Satpura also named Vindhya Range has great significance in Indian mythology. Several ancient texts mention the Vindhyas as the southern boundary of the ancient Indo-Aryan people. This range is situated in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra with some extension to Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh. The highest point of the Vindhyas is the Sad-Bhawan Shikhar, which lies 2,467 feet above the sea level.
5.The Aravalli Range
Aravalli range is one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world with the width varying from 10-100km. This range covers the Indian states of Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujarat.
Mount Abu in the region of Rajasthan is situated in this range. Sabarmati, Luni, and Banas are the rivers flowing through this range.
6.The Western Ghats
Covering an area of 54,000sq mi in the stretch of 1,600km, this range is parallel to the western coast of the Indian Peninsula.
This range is also named as Sahyadri mountains. It travels to the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, and Gujarat with famous Nilgiris, Anaimalai, and Cardamom mountain ranges. Jog falls, Ooty, Bandipur National Park are some famous tourist attractions with the Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri being the main rivers.
7.The Eastern Ghats
The Eastern Ghats are mountain ranges running in the eastern part of the Indian Peninsula parallel to the Bay of Bengal.
These ghats are older than the Western Ghats and have a complex geological history. This range runs through Indian states of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu with Arma Konda being the highest peak(1680m) in this region. Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri fall into the Bay of Bengal through these ranges.
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